The Definition of the State-dependent memory psychology or state-dependent learning is when people remember more information if their physical or mental state is the same at the time of encoding and recall. State-dependent memory on psychology has been heavily researched about synthetic states of consciousness (such as under the influence of psychoactive drugs) and its employees regarding biological conditions of consciousness, such as mood. While state-dependent memory may seem similar to context-dependent memory, context-dependent memory involves a person’s external environment and situations (such as a room used for studying and taking exams). In contrast, state -Dependent memory is applied to the internal of the individual. Conditions (such as the use of substances or mood swings).
In 1784, a French aristocrat named the Marquis de Puysegur realized that when people were placed in a hypnotic state, they were awake, unable to remember what they had been told. However, when he was put back into hypnosis, he would be able to remember everything from the last time in the state.
In 1910 a man named Morton Prince came to know about dreams. He hypothesized that when we are awake, we have difficulty remembering our goals, not because we are unable, but because plans are not like the real world.
In 1937, at the University of Illinois, Edward Gordon and Elmer Color experimented on conditioned responses in dogs under the influence of a drug cure. In the experiment, dogs were taught a conditioned muscular response—to pull their paws off the ground upon hearing the buzzer. The buzzer was often accompanied by a small electric shock, which prompted a response. When the cure was no longer in their system, dogs under the influence of the kare when they first learned the answer were less likely to remember to pull their paw away when they heard the buzzer. Once they were given the treatment again, the response returned. This result indicated that the dogs’ ability to recall answers was linked to their state of consciousness. Gordon and Colour’s research opened the door for further investigation into the effects of the state of consciousness on an organism’s ability to encode memory.
Following this discovery, other researchers looked at the effect of different states on responses or the ability to learn and remember information. In 1964, Donald Overton conducted a study directly responding to Gordon and Colour’s 1937 experiment. The study tested the effects of sodium pentobarbital on the rats’ abilities to learn and remember specific taught answers. These rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups – substance or no substance administered (control condition) – then placed in a simple maze and taught to avoid electric shock. Overton found that rats given 25 mg of sodium pentobarbital could no longer remember an appropriate escape response when placed in a maze without the drug afterward. However, if these rats were again administered sodium pentobarbital and placed in the maze, they would remember the avoidance response they had been taught.
Similarly, when Overton conducted a rat escape response under a control condition (no sodium pentobarbital administered), it could not recall the behavior when it was given the drug and was later asked to perform was. The results strongly indicated that rats displayed the learned response more efficiently in either the sodium pentobarbital or the control state than when they first learned it. The study specifically stated, “the learned response under the influence of a particular drug will occur later (with maximum strength) only when the state of that drug is restored.”
In 1969, Home, Bremer, and Stern conducted a test with two main parts. Participants were given time to study and were asked to consume 10 ounces of vodka just before the test. The next day, they did the same, except some were intoxicated while others remained sober. The results found that the students did well, whether straight or drunk, but only when they were in the state they were studying and tested. In other words, if they were intoxicated while studying, they thought it better to take the test in that state. If they were calm while learning, they got their best results while remaining calm.
In later years, similar studies confirmed that learning could be state dependent. In 1971, Terry DeVetti and Raymond Larson conducted a similar study on rats, looking at how different electric shock levels affect memory. Their results supported the idea that their state influenced the rats’ ability to remember a learned response. The study of this phenomenon continued after more than thirty years. In 2004, Mohamed-Reza Zaristad and Ameneh Rezayof studied rats to see how morphine affected memory and learning. They found that when rats learned to respond under the influence of morphine, they did it most efficiently later under the influence of morphine. When rats learned the free response from morphine, they remembered it best when they were sober. And for rats that had been taught to respond under the influence of morphine, once the drug was discontinued, they suffered the amnestic effect; They could no longer remember the learned response.
The results of each of these studies point to a state-dependent memory phenomenon. Further research on this topic continues today to discover different effects of state-dependent memory or other conditions, including state dependence. At its most basic, state-dependent memory is the product of strengthening a particular synaptic pathway in the brain. A nerve synapse is a space between brain cells or neurons that allows chemical signals to pass from one neuron to another. Chemicals called neurotransmitters to leave one cell, travel across the synapse, and are carried by the next neuron via a neurotransmitter receptor. This creates a connection between two neurons called a neural pathway. Memory depends on strengthening these neural pathways, linking one neuron with another. When we learn something, new pathways form between neurons in the brain that communicate via chemical signals. If these cells have a history of sending certain signals under specific chemical conditions within the brain, they are designed to function most effectively under similar conditions. State-dependent memory occurs when a new neural connection is made when the brain is in a specific chemical state – for example, a child with ADHD learns multiplication tables while on stimulant medication. Because their brain made these new connections related to the multiplication table while the brain was chemically affected by the stimulant drug, their neurons would be primed to remember these facts in the future when the brain had similar Level medicines available.
While there is strong evidence for the existence of state-dependent memory, it needs to be clarified what the advantage of this circumstance might be. In 2006, researcher Lorena Pompilio and her team tackled this question by investigating the presence of state-dependent memory in invertebrates, particularly grasshoppers. Up to this point, only vertebrates had been used to study state-dependent memory in psychology definition. This study found that invertebrates also experienced this phenomenon, particularly in relation to situations of low or high nutritional intake. Pompilio and Associates (2006) concluded that their results demonstrated a potential “adaptive advantage” of state-dependent learning that explains its intrinsic presence in various species. State-dependent memory recalls the time when the organism was in a similar state, which then informs the decisions they make in the present. For these grasshoppers, their low-nutrition state led to cognitive connections to similar forms of pressure. It prompted the insects to make decisions when they encountered low nutrition in previous conditions. The paper shows that this phenomenon allows quick decision-making when an organism does not have the time or neural capacity to process every choice carefully.
Research has shown evidence of many substances’ roles in state-dependent memory. For example, stimulants such as Ritalin can cause state-dependent memory effects in children with hyperactive disorders. Additionally, state-dependent memory effects have been found concerning other substances such as morphine, caffeine, and alcohol.
A considerable amount of research has been done on the effects of alcohol. John Elliottson’s Human Physiology (1835) gives an apparent description of state-dependent memory:
“Dr. Abel informed me,” says Mr. Combe [possibly George Combe], “in a warehouse of an Irish porter, who forgot, when sober, what he had done while drunk: but, being drunk, recalled the transaction again in his former state of intoxication. On one occasion, being intoxicated, he had lost a parcel of some value and could not account for it in his sober moments. The next time he was drunk, he remembered that he had left the parcel at some house, and with no address on it, he had stayed there safely and was found at his call.” This man must have had two souls, one for his sober state and one for him when drunk.
Research shows that intoxicants are less likely to remember information learned when they are once again sober. However, the information known or the memories formed while intoxicated are most effectively acquired when the person is in a similar state of intoxication.
Alcoholism can also enhance state-dependent memory. In a study that compared the state-dependent memory effects of alcohol with and without alcohol in subjects, researchers found that alcoholic subjects showed more significant results for state-dependent memory on functions of recall and free association. This is not because alcohol produces better attachments but because a person with alcoholism lives a large part of their life under the influence of alcohol. This produces changes in cognition, so when a person with alcoholism drinks, intoxication leads their brain to specific associations. A similar has been made in the states. Essentially, the drunk and sober states of the alcoholic are, in fact, different from the intoxicated and sober states of the non-alcoholic, whose body is not used to processing such large amounts of the substance. For this reason, we often see slightly larger effects of state-dependent memory for older drinkers than non-drinkers.
In contrast, studies suggest that caffeine does not affect state-dependent memory. With subjects consuming either no drink or caffeinated coffee when recalling a word list and then undergoing the same treatment while recalling, there was no significant difference between the group’s ability to identify the recognized word list. Was.
The effects of marijuana have shown ambiguous results regarding a person’s cognitive ability to recall information, regardless of which state they were in when encoding and recalling. In one study, a wide range of subjects with varying levels of THC exposure were given a single dose of this compound and asked to perform tasks related to memory function. The final results did not provide enough evidence to argue cannabis and state-dependent memory strongly.
Over the years, it has been hypothesized that intoxicated people do not remember what they did while intoxicated because they were in a state of euphoria. Whereas in daily life, the average person is not that happy. It isn’t until they get drunk again and reach that high mood that they can start to piece together what they did a few nights ago.
State-dependent memory influenced by mood has been controversial in the psychological field. Although the research seemed to show evidence for the existence of mood dependence in memory, this came into question later when researchers suggested that the results were the result of mood-consistent memory, a phenomenon in which a person experiences a conditioned condition. Remembers more information related to. For example, a person asked to learn a list of words when they have a cold may remember more words associated with their illness, such as “tissue” or “crowd,” when trying to remember the words learned later. It is called for. Since then, researchers have been conducting experiments to ascertain the truth about mood-dependent memory, although it is challenging to eliminate unreliability from such studies.
Few studies have examined the existence of mood-dependent memory, particularly in individuals with bipolar disorder who typically blank out over time between mood extremes, particularly depression and mania. In 1977, it was found that individuals with bipolar disorder performed better on a verbal association test when they were in the same mood state as their state in an oral association test.
What is the State-Dependent Memory Psychology Definition With Example?
In this, we will learn about state-dependent psychology memory with definition and other examples. State-dependent memory in psychology in definition are memories that are generated or enhanced by a person’s current mood as the memories of when you were in a similar state.
For example, pleasant memories are remembered more easily or intensely when one is already feeling happy; the same goes for sadness or anger. Think about it and you are having a great time with your family on a picnic. It’s easy to flashback to the other good times you had.
Similarly, if you’re fighting with a partner, you’re more likely to bring up events or feelings in a previous fight—the same mood brings those memories to mind more easily.
It is related to state-dependent learning in which a person is more likely to remember information when they are in the same state of consciousness as when they learned the knowledge of state-dependent memory psychology and its the definition also
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